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涡轮机，在密闭空间工作的风险，以及当风力涡轮机处于运行阶段甚至静止时最终积冰和不规则脱落的风险。 最后一类风险在寒冷气候地区被高度观察到。 上述四种类型的风险...
Turbines, the risk of working in confined spaces, and finally the risk of ice accretion and irregular shedding when the wind turbine is in operation phase or even when it is stationary. The last type of risk is highly observed in cold climate regions. The four mentioned types of risks are the main ones out of the many risks that could appear during transporting, installing, operating and maintaining wind turbines. The main aim of this work is to contribute in the proper risk assessment of potential hazards, which enhances the ability to devise passive and active protection measures to reduce the effects of a catastrophic event. Keywords—risk assessment; hazard identification; risk analysis; risk evaluation; wind turbine
There is a rising commitment towards utilizing clean energy across the world. Wind turbines happen to be an efficient choice to meet some of the demand for elecricity. A group of wind turbines connected to each other by electrical cables forms a wind farm. A wind farm produces 17 to 39 times the power it consumes, which is more efficient when compared to other forms of energy such as nuclear power (16 times) or coal (11 times) .
An onshore wind turbine sits on a structural support usually made of concrete, called the Foundation, the importance of a foundation is to transfer the horizontal and vertical forces acting on the wind turbine to the surrounding ground. Whether the case is offshore or onshore, a wind turbine would essentially consist of the same parts. The first component of a wind turbine is the tower whose height varies depending on the site and the available wind speed. Going from bottom to top, the cross section of the tower becomes narrower. Normally, a ladder is mounted inside of the wind turbine’s tower. However, modern towers have lifts . On the top of the tower, lies another part called the nacelle. The nacelle holds the needed equipment to convert wind energy into electricity, such as gearbox, braking system, generator and yawing mechanism to correct the direction of the nacelle to face the wind direction.
The wind turbine blades are connected to the nacelle through a hub. Generated electricity is transferred via cables to a step-up transformer located at the base of the wind turbine . Wind-turbines are constructions that are susceptible to windy conditions and they have many mechanical and electrical moving parts and instruments. Therefore, there is a great need for awareness of the types of hazards that workers might face when dealing with wind turbines. This research aims towards investigating the hazards that might take place during the installation and maintenance phases of mainly onshore wind turbines by utilizing risk assessment methodologies to identify the probable hazards, their level of risk and ways of mitigation and control.
According to the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Z1002 Standard "Occupational health and safety – Hazard identification and elimination and risk assessment and control", the following terms used in the risk assessment procedure are defined as follows , : Risk is identified as the combination of the likelihood of the occurrence of a harm and the severity of that harm.
Risk assessment is the overall process of hazard identification, risk analysis, and risk evaluation.
Risk assessment provides an understanding of risks, their causes, consequences, and their probabilities.
Hazard identification is the process of finding, listing, and characterizing hazards.
Risk analysis is a process for comprehending the nature of hazards and determining the level of risk.
Risk evaluation is the process of comparing an estimated risk against given risk criteria to determine the significance of the risk.
A decision is taken based on risk evaluation in order to mitigate or control the risk. This step is known as Risk Control Before implementing risk control measures, the level of risk has to be determined in order to decide which hazard to start treating . One of the conventional methods used to rank or prioritize risks is the Risk Matrix shown in Table I, where the vertical column shows the likelihood of the risk to take place and the horizontal row shows risk severity if it happens. The combination between likelihood and severity in this qualitative method determines the level of the risk; consequently a decision can be made on which measures should be taken in order to control and mitigate the risk. The following sections discuss various types of risks during wind turbines transportation, installation, operation and maintenance.
Wind turbines differ in sizes and capacities. Generally, larger wind turbines are able to deliver more electricity at lower cost. This is because some costs related to building a wind turbine are independent of its size, such as the cost of the foundation, building new roads and electrical grid connections .Transporting large components on roads can cause injury
to people and damage to materials. The likelihood and severity of hazard may increase while transporting large wind turbine
components in particular at narrow roads with heavy traffic, or difficult road terrains.
Transporting large wind turbine components faces many challenges. As for onshore wind turbines, components might have to be transported via existing public roads, which allows for limited movement and poses high risk to vehicles on the road when conveying such parts to the construction site. On the other hand, marine transportation and installation equipment allow better handling of larger parts, therefor, offshore wind turbines tend to be larger than onshore ones . As an example of large wind turbines parts, Siemens is working with other partners to create 6MW offshore wind turbines, the size of one blade of these turbines is a fraction smaller than An A380's wingspan. Siemens says that one 6MW wind turbine is enough to supply about 6,000 European households with electricity.
Kilometer per hour over a distance of 575 kilometers to the construction site . Another example is the widely used GE 1.5-megawatt wind turbine, which consists of almost 116 ft. blade mounted on top of 212 ft. tower. The blade assembly of that wind turbine weighs more than 36 tons and the tower weighs.
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